Have you considered refinancing your mortgage? Now may be a good time. This week, Zillow’s economist Matthew Speakman informed the Wall Street Journal that “[m]ortgage rates fell this week . . . [a]fter months of barely budging.” Access the full article here. If you are interested in refinancing, reach out to our settlement department today at firstname.lastname@example.org. Stern & Eisenberg offers full-service closing and title services in NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, WV, and DC.
Our law firm can streamline your closing/settlement while working with our preferred lenders and title department. You may be eligible for cash-out options with certain lenders. In Maryland, we can actually conduct the closing inside your home—removing the need for you to travel.
Originally passed as part of the federal Mortgage Forgiveness Relief Debt Relief Act of 2007, Congress added Section 108(a)(1)(E) was added to the Internal Revenue Code, creating the Qualified Principal Residence Indebtedness (QPRI) exclusion. With this exclusion, if any mortgage debt on a homeowner’s principal residence is forgiven, that homeowner could exclude from their taxable income up to $2 million of that forgiven debt ($1 million for single taxpayer and $2 million for married taxpayers).
Over the years, that exclusion was extended by Congress, eventually through the end of 2017. The exclusion expired at the end of 2017 when Congress failed to extend it again. However, with the passage of the federal Taxpayer Certainty and Disaster Relief Act of 2019, the QPRI exclusion was extended through December 31, 2020, and further was applied retroactively to the 2018 and 2019 tax years.
Without a further extension, the QPRI exclusion was set to expire at the end of 2020. However, as part of the recently passed federal Congressional Appropriations Act of 2021, which also included significant COVID-19 related relief provisions, the QPRI exclusion has been extended again, through 2025. However, the QPRI limits have been reduced from $1,000,000 single/$2 million married to $375,000 single/$750,000 married limits.
For homeowners who received a 1099-C from their lender as part of a workout of the mortgage loan on their primary residence, this extension may provide significant and welcome relief, and we encourage you to consult your tax advisor about this relief provision.
Prepayment Premiums are common features of commercial loan contracts. These provisions are generally used to compensate lenders in cases where a borrower pays off a loan early, thus depriving the lender of the stream of interest income for which they had originally bargained. Crucially, lenders often seek to enforce prepayment premiums after a borrower has defaulted and the loan has been accelerated. This is true despite the fact that, where the borrower has defaulted, there has been no literal “prepayment”.
Historically, prepayment premiums were generally disfavored by courts as unenforceable penalties. However, more recent New Jersey court decisions have found that prepayment premiums are presumptively reasonable when included in a commercial contract between sophisticated parties. Norwest Bank Minnesota v. Blair Rd. Associates, L.P., 252 F. Supp. 2d 86, 94 (D.N.J. 2003) (quoting Metlife Capital Fin. Corp. v. Washington Ave. Assocs., L.P. 159 N.J. 484at 496).
Despite our courts’ receptiveness to enforcing prepayment premiums in the commercial loan context, there do remain some obstacles to enforcing these provisions through a mortgage foreclosure action. In New Jersey, commercial foreclosure actions are overseen by the Office of Foreclosure. The Office of Foreclosure generally permits lenders to include a modest prepayment premium (up to 5% of the unpaid principal balance) in the amount due under the foreclosure judgment. However, to the extent that the lender seeks a greater prepayment premium, they must apply to the vicinage court for an order permitting inclusion of the prepayment premium in the amount due.
In cases in which an application to the vicinage court is necessary, the court will first look to the language in the loan documents to determine whether the prepayment premium is enforceable. Therefore, where a lender seeks to enforce a prepayment premium through a foreclosure action, it is critical for the prepayment premium provision to specifically include default and acceleration as one of the events which triggers the prepayment premium. If this language is not included, a court could determine that the prepayment premium has not been triggered by the borrower’s default because a default does not involve a literal “prepayment”. Other factors that will make a court more likely to enforce a prepayment premium are indications that the provision was made clear to the borrower (e.g. by including a disclaimer in large, bold font and by urging the borrower to have the loan agreement reviewed by an attorney of their choice). By considering these issues when drafting their loans, lenders can maximize the probability that their prepayment premiums will be deemed enforceable and included in the foreclosure judgment.
It goes without saying that this has been a difficult year for everyone. This is particularly true with respect to New Jersey’s landlords, who have borne the full brunt of government imposed lockdowns and the predictable payment defaults they have caused. Landlords now find themselves in a vulnerable position that was once unimaginable.
For the 10th time since March, 2020, Governor Murphy recently issued an Executive Order extending New Jersey’s Public Health Emergency through January, 2021. This extension, when read in conjunction with Executive Order # 106, prohibits Sheriffs’ Officers from removing tenants solely due to non payment of rent through March of 2021. It takes little creativity to envision an 11th, 12th or 13th extension in the months to come. Landlords therefore find themselves in a precarious position where they have few options to deal with tenants who may be over a year past due in their rental obligations. Although Landlords may initiate eviction proceedings, their inability to remove non-paying tenants for the foreseeable future is heavily straining their resources. Landlords’ mortgage payments and New Jersey’s notoriously high property tax obligations remain due and owing, though the revenue streams they rely on to satisfy them have been dammed up by these Gubernatorial actions.
What is a landlord to do if they find themself in this predicament?
Unfortunately, there is no magic bullet, one size fits all solution or other metaphor to come to the rescue. Landlords who still have a mortgage on their rental property should first look to their lenders for assistance. Depending on whom their lender is, they may be eligible for payment forbearance or similar assistance. Landlords with federally backed mortgages are generally eligible for up to one year of payment forbearance if they are suffering from a covid related hardship. Although all payments will eventually come due, federally backed mortgage lenders are required to work with their borrowers to either modify or extend the loan at the conclusion of the forbearance period. Conventional borrowers are entitled to less protections and therefore must work with their lenders to see what programs are available to them. In either case, the landlord needs to be proactive to protect their ownership interest, their credit and their sanity.
Landlords should also try to work with their tenants. Though many tenants are themselves struggling due to lost employment or wages, they may be able to make partial payments until they get back on their feet and can satisfy all outstanding arrearages. If negotiations fail, a Landlord might consider initiating an eviction action predicated on non-payment. Even though lockouts are generally prohibited courtesy of Governor Murphy’s Executive Orders, getting the process started now should put them towards the front of the line when normal processes resume. Landlords should also keep in mind their recourse against a non-paying tenant is always two fold: they have the ability to evict to re-claim the property and to sue the tenant for all sums due and owing under the lease. Though the latter option has historically not been exercised because the eviction process was relatively swift, it now warrants consideration. Filing a breach of contract / unjust enrichment suit may motivate a non paying tenant to vacate the premises or bring them to the table to negotiate an amicable financial resolution. If the Landlord’s goal is to facilitate an expedient and dignified exit from the property, initiating a monetary lawsuit may advance those interests.
It is imperative that landlords consult an experienced attorney to help them through this process. Though lockouts predicated solely on non-payment are currently prohibited, there are a few exceptions to that general rule. Successful navigation of these trying times requires landlords to be patient, compassionate and creative. On a positive note, there do appear to be at least two glimmers of light at the end of the proverbial tunnel: (1) an effective vaccine is being distributed; and (2) Governor Murphy must defend his seat in November of 2021.
David Lambropoulos is the managing attorney of Stern & Eisenberg’s New Jersey office. He has significant experience representing landlords and property owners and is available for a consultation to discuss the specifics of your case.
*This article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute (and should not be inferred as providing) legal advice. Every case is unique and must be evaluated by a qualified attorney before a meaningful recommendation can be provided.*
Beginning with Governor Murphy’s Executive Order No. 106, every county sheriff in New Jersey has either cancelled or suspended scheduled foreclosure sales and refused to schedule new sale dates. Most sheriffs have taken the position that the executive order prevents them from enforcing all judgments for possession, warrants of removal and writs of possession involving residential properties. However, there is significant debate as to whether the operative language incorporated in Gov. Murphy’s Order legally prohibits foreclosure sales from being scheduled and taking place and if the removal protections in the order are being exploited by individuals who neither rent nor own residential properties.
Specifically, the text of Executive Order No. 106 directs that any lessee, tenant, homeowner or any other person shall not be removed from a residential property as the result of an eviction or foreclosure proceeding. While the executive order is quite clear that lockouts resulting from eviction proceedings are expressly prohibited, the same cannot be said for foreclosure sales since a sheriff’s sale in and of itself does not directly result in the occupant(s) being removed from the property. Despite this ambiguity, New Jersey sheriffs have seemingly adopted the more conservative approach that Executive Order No. 106 and Gov. Murphy’s subsequent orders extending the public health emergency have created a state wide moratorium on both the scheduling and holding of foreclosure sales.
The plain language of Executive Order No. 106 defines “residential property” as any property rented or owned for residential properties. The clear intent of the Order is to prevent the removal of individuals from residential properties through the eviction or foreclosure processes during the time the Order is in effect. Yet, there is a sizable group of individuals occupying residential properties in our State that neither own nor rent these properties. These individuals have traditionally been referred to as “squatters” and arguably fall outside the moratorium protections. Regardless, our courts and law enforcement officers are often unwilling or unable to make this distinction and have opted rather to provide blanket coverage for these individuals. Fortunately, the executive order has carved out an exception to allow for removal of individuals from residential properties if the court determines on its own motion or motion of the parties that enforcement “is necessary in the interest of justice.” By including this language, at a minimum, there is a mechanism in place to ensure that potentially dangerous or criminal behavior by illegal occupants is not permitted to continue unchecked at certain residential properties.
Pennsylvania announced the Act 6 Base Figure for 2021 as $263,975. What is the base figure and how does it impact your foreclosure in Pennsylvania? For any lender bringing a foreclosure in Pennsylvania, one of the two statutory Notices they need to be aware of is Act 6 (41 P.S. §§ 101, 403). The base figure is important for two reasons: first it determines who gets the notice and second it determines the amount of attorney fees that are collectible pre-foreclosure complaint. In Pennsylvania Residential Mortgage borrowers are entitled to an Act 6 notice. A Residential Mortgage is defined as a property with less than two residential units and an original principal less than or equal to the base figure. The second impact is after the expiration of the Act Notice but prior to foreclosure a lender is limited to attorney’s fees that do not exceed .1% of the then existing base figure. 68 Pa. Stat. and Cons. Stat. Ann. § 2311 (West). For 2021, .1% of the base figure is $263.98. After a complaint is filed, the lender may seek reasonable attorney’s fees in accordance with the loan documents and Pennsylvania Case Law. Please feel free to reach out to Andrew Marley, Esquire or Ed McKee, Esquire for additional information or questions regarding your Act 6 notices.
By: Thomas E. Shea, Esquire, Director of Estate Planning
According to published reports, since 2016 University of Michigan football coach Jim Harbaugh’s contract includes a split-dollar life insurance arrangement. Since that time, other published reports indicate that other high-profile college coaches have similar split-dollar life insurance arrangements as part of their contracts, including since 2017, Dabo Swinney of Clemson football and Dawn Staley of South Carolina women’s basketball, and more recently within the past year, Ed Orgeron of 2020 NCAA national champion LSU football and James Franklin of Penn State football, in each case as part of their contract extensions. While these high-profile cases from the world of college sports attract media attention, split-dollar life insurance benefit planning can be an effective key employee retention strategy and we can show you how.
What is a split-dollar insurance arrangement? How does it work?
The use of split-dollar life insurance arrangements for key employees is not a new concept, either as an alternative to a deferred compensation plan or combined with a qualified or non-qualified deferred compensation arrangement. The split-dollar life insurance plan often involves a strategy where the employer loans money on favorable terms to a key employee over a period of years. The loan proceeds are invested in, or used to pay the life insurance premiums of, a permanent cash value or cash accumulation life insurance policy. The split-dollar policy design is one where the plan is to pay a high premium for the lowest death benefit. This may seem counterintuitive since most people buying traditional life insurance want to produce the highest death benefit for the lowest premium. However, the split-dollar strategy is often designed to grow cash value quickly by minimizing policy charges with a lower death benefit. At some point as part of this split-dollar strategy the employer’s loan gets repaid either out of the policy cash value during the employee’s lifetime or out of the death benefit at the employee’s death. The life insurance policy cash value or cash accumulation that is in excess of the employer’s loan balance can be accessed by employee income tax free, making this strategy a form of non-qualified retirement plan to supplement and increase the employee’s retirement benefits.
These split-dollar plans typically provide that if the employee leaves employer, he/she will be required to promptly repay the employer any program premium loans. Harbaugh’s split-dollar plan apparently provides that the employer loans are non-interest bearing, which requires Harbaugh to report and pay income tax annually on the imputed income equal to the interest Michigan would have charged him if the loan carried interest at a rate at least equal to the IRS minimum rate. While this interest free strategy may have made sense back in 2016 when Harbaugh and Michigan agreed to the plan, based on 2016 interest rates in place at the time, whether or not to have an interest rate component as part of a key employee split-dollar plan today should of course be evaluated in the context of current interest rates.
What is the purpose of a split-dollar life insurance loan arrangement in the employment context?
As can be seen in these high-profile college coach cases, the motivation is simple, retain key talent in a way that can maximize benefits to the key employee in exchange for an intended long-term commitment to the employer. Perhaps though, at least in the cases of football coaches Harbaugh, Orgeron, and Franklin, given the current 2020 woes of their respective football programs, their employers may not view them as “key” as they used to be…
Again, while these high-profile cases may garner a lot of media attention, it is important to note that split-dollar life insurance planning is not just for highly paid college coaches. The split-dollar life insurance strategy can be an effective planning and retention strategy in many contexts, in both for-profit and non-profit organizations, and as a succession planning strategy for family businesses, perhaps even more so in the current Covid-19 pandemic era where business owners may be looking for ways to keep key talent to stabilize their business and interest rates are at historic lows. Further, as the split-dollar plan involves a life insurance policy is involved, it can and often is incorporated into the key employee’s estate plan.
How well does such a key employee split-dollar program work?
While they always look great on paper at plan inception (why do them otherwise), eventually their success depends on factors related to both economic and employee/employer circumstances over time, such as applicable interest rates, life insurance policy projections vs. results, loan repayment provisions and employee job performance and security. There are also many alternative key employee retention planning strategies. For example, it has been publicly reported that coach Nick Saban of Alabama football has a generous term life insurance policy as part of his contract providing a significant death benefit for his family. The policy premiums are paid for by the school, although Saban must report the premium payment by the school as taxable income. Saban’s plan is a simpler planning strategy than the split-dollar plan. However, keep in mind that simpler is not necessarily better, for example Saban’s plan may not provide any lifetime tax-favored retirement benefits to Saban as a term life insurance policy does not have a cash value or cash accumulation component as a split-dollar plan policy does.
It is critically important that any split-dollar planning strategy be structured properly and tax compliant.
If you have any questions as to whether a key employee split-dollar planning strategy may make sense for any key employees of your business, or if you are a key employee who has been offered a split-dollar plan as part of your incentive employment plan, we may be able to help. Contact Thomas Shea, Esquire or reach out via SternEisenberg.com if you want more information or need additional questions answered.
The Consumer Bankruptcy Reform Act (CBRA) has been introduced by several Democratic senators as the first major bankruptcy reform since 2005. CBRA presents as a robust and ambitious bill that seeks to reform the bankruptcy structure as a whole.
The CBRA proposes a new chapter 10 and eliminates chapters 7 and 13 entirely. Chapter 10 will have a minimum payment obligation based on income and a graduated percentage of income exceeding 135% of the state median income. Debtors who have no payment obligation will be entitled to an immediate discharge of eligible debts. An immediate discharge could be beneficial to mortgage lenders as the automatic stay is lifted upon discharge. This would eliminate the need for Motions for Relief from the Automatic Stay in a no payment obligation case as opposed to a chapter 7 discharge, which can take months.
Debtors who do have a payment obligation are able to structure their repayment plan similarly to a chapter 13, but there are some major changes to the treatment of creditors. First secured mortgage debt is handled under a “residence” or “Property Plan”. At first glance this sounds like the current chapter 13 plan. It is not. Under a chapter 10 Property Plan debtors can change the terms of their secured obligations. A Chapter 10 debtor can adjust interest rates, amortization schedules, cure a default, and cram down the loan without restriction. Essentially debtors will pay lenders the value of the lien, at the till interest rate, and can pay well past the maturity date of the loan. Terms of the mortgage will not be honored in a chapter 10 and mortgage creditor’s rights will be substantially impaired. Creditors be prejudiced, Courts will be inundated with adversary pleadings to strip and cram down mortgage loans, and every adversary will be contested as to value. Ultimately, debtors and lenders will be spending significant fees to litigate the modification of a secured lien.
Second, in a chapter 10 a debtor can default on their modified mortgage payment and a mortgage creditor cannot initiate a Motion for Relief from Stay until the debtor is 120 days delinquent. The Mortgage lender will be forced to wait, while the debtor is incurring more fees for non-payment. Most defaults are resolved amicably with a repayment stipulation within the first 2 months of a default. The higher the arrears amount, the harder it is for the debtor to resolve.
Lastly, the CBRA gives the CFPB authority to appear in any bankruptcy case to enforce any of its prohibitions on unfair, deceptive, and abusive practices. This creates another layer of protection for a debtor. Debtor protection is necessary, however mortgage creditor requirements regarding statements, payment changes, escrow changes, and RESPA are often perceived by debtor’s as violations of the CFPB and the automatic stay. The CBRA does not indicate what protections are being used to ensure false or frivolous claims are not being made causing mortgage lenders to have to defend themselves and waste resources.
The CBRA has some interesting changes that could prove beneficial and cost effective to mortgage lenders. However, the majority of the proposed provisions lean heavily to benefit the debtor without any apparent regard for creditor rights and the prejudicial effect the CBRA will have on creditors. Creditors’ rights have consistently been impaired as the Bankruptcy Code has changed and reformed. The CBRA’s proposed provisions are no different and are more impactful than any other Bankruptcy reformation.
Yesterday, Wednesday 12/9, a bipartisan group of the US Congress released a summary of the proposed new Emergency Covid Relief Act of 2020. While this proposal is not yet law, and the White House has introduced a competing proposal, further negotiations are likely. However, the summary of this proposed new bipartisan legislation includes the following relief provisions:
An additional $300 billion to the SBA (Small Business Administration) for second PPP loans to small businesses impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic who have 300 or fewer employers and have suffered a 30% revenue loss in any quarter of 2020.
Business expenses paid for with the proceeds of the PPP loan will be tax deductible, consistent with Congressional intent under the earlier CARES Act, and even though PPP loan forgiveness is already not taxable income, resolving what has been a point of contention between Congress, the Internal Revenue Service, and tax experts.
PPP loan forgiveness would be further simplified for those small businesses with PPP loans of $150,000 or less.
The federal government would provide a $300 weekly supplement to state unemployment benefits for an additional 16 weeks (under the proposal, this increase would not be retroactive).
It is still anyone’s guess what any final federal COVID relief legislation will look like, but S&E continues to monitor developments in this area and will keep you informed.
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